Mainly two kinds of heaters are used on space borne hardware to control the temperature of specific areas.

Kapton Heaters are usually implemented in flat areas on or under equipment in conjunction with sensors to accurately and actively control the temperature of the item.

Kapton Heaters can be procured commercially or according to ESA (European Space Agency) standards.

Wire heaters are often used on Propellant Lines to be able to disperse the heat along the line.

All heater types are procured and integrated by RSA. Electrical connections of the heater cables is normally performed by the customer